Biological Facts

10 Different Types Of Cancer And Their Symptoms

Different Types Of Cancer And Their Symptoms

The most common cancers are breast, lung, colon and rectum and prostate cancers. The word cancer causes fear, pain and scientific interest in equal parts. We all know, directly or indirectly, someone who has faced this disease at some point in their life.

Although the prognosis of this group of clinical conditions improves with early detection and emerging treatments, today having a malignant tumor continues to be a real challenge in every sense.

Cancer occurs when the body’s cells suffer mutations in their DNA, which causes them to grow, divide and expand uncontrollably, acquiring the ability to invade tissues in other parts of the body.

Most mutations that cause cancer occur throughout life, which is why older people are more likely to develop it. In a smaller number of cases (5-10% of the total), causal mutations are inherited from parents. This latter event is known as hereditary cancer syndrome.

What are The 10 Most Common Types Of Cancer?

Talking about cancer is unpleasant and costly, as it usually brings to mind very painful experiences and memories. In any case, knowing its signs, symptoms and risks is essential to detect it in time and improve the prognosis. In the following lines, we tell you what the 10 most common types of cancer are and how they manifest.

The 10 Different types of Cancer:

  1. Breast cancer
  2. Lung cancer
  3. Colorectal cancer
  4. Prostate cancer
  5. Stomach cancer
  6. Liver cancer
  7. Cancer of the cervix (CCU)
  8. Esophageal cancer
  9. Thyroid cancer
  10. Bladder cancer

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the most common type of malignant neoplasm worldwide, representing 12.5% ​​of total cases. As indicated by professional sources , up to 1 in 8 women will have breast cancer throughout their lives, but the prognosis can be excellent if it is detected in time. Therefore, it is recommended that every woman between 40 and 75 years old have a mammogram at least once every two years.

Breast cancer Symptoms:

One of the main symptoms of this type of cancer is the appearance of a lump in the breast and/or armpit.

The affected breast may also increase in thickness, depressions may be observed in the breast region, redness may be observed, or strange secretions may occur.

It is very important to do a breast self-examination once a month to detect any abnormality and go to the medical center in case of suspicion.

Lung cancer

Lung cancer accounts for 12.2% of all global cancers. Although there are several risk factors for its development, up to 9 out of 10 deaths from this type of neoplasia are related to tobacco consumption. The risk of developing this pathology in a non-smoker throughout life is 1.8%, while smokers increase it to 14.8%.

Lung Cancer Symptoms:

The most common symptoms of lung cancer are:

  • shortness of breath
  • chest pain
  • persistent cough that does not go away
  • wheezing, bloody sputum
  • feeling permanently tired
  • unexplained weight loss
  • recurrent lung infections
  • hoarseness, and more.

The overall survival rate for this type of cancer is quite poor, but improves if the prognosis is early.

Colorectal cancer

Colon and/or rectal cancer represents 10.7% of all cancers. The risk of suffering from it throughout life is approximately 1 in 23, although it is a condition somewhat more prevalent in men than in women. Among the predisposing factors to develop it are obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive consumption of red/ultra-processed meats and alcoholism.

Colorectal cancer Symptoms:

The best-known clinical symptoms of colon cancer is the presence of blood in the stool, although this is not always visible to the naked eye.

Other symptoms may also occur, such as changes in bowel frequency, persistent abdominal discomfort, cramps, and unexplained weight loss.

In any case, in this case there is good news: if diagnosed at a localized stage, colon cancer has a 5-year survival rate after diagnosis that exceeds 90%.

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer represents 7.8% of cancers diagnosed each year in the world. Advanced age is one of the greatest predispositions for the development of this malignant tumor, since 6 out of 10 cases are diagnosed in men over 65 years of age. Needless to say, this type of cancer only affects people with a male biological sex, since those with female genitalia do not have a prostate.

Prostate cancer Symptoms:

One of the main symptoms of this type of cancer is difficulty starting to urinate.

It also presents signs such as problems emptying the bladder completely, pain/burning when urinating, difficulty holding urine, and a higher frequency of urination than normal.

It is one of the cancers with the best prognoses, since in its localized stage the survival rate 5 years after diagnosis is almost 100%.

Unless it is an advanced or metastatic stage, it can be treated safely.

Stomach cancer

We reach the middle of the list with stomach cancer, which represents 6% of cancers diagnosed globally. The lifetime risk for men is 1 in 96, while in women it is greatly reduced (1 in 152). Smoking doubles the probability of suffering from this malignant neoplasm, although there are also other predisposing factors. One of the best known is gastric infection caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori.

Stomach cancer Symptoms:

The symptoms of stomach cancer can be confused with other disorders related to the digestive system:

  • Poor appetite
  • weight loss
  • abdominal pain
  • discomfort above the navel
  • heartburn, indigestion and nausea.

Unfortunately, this type of cancer is not usually diagnosed until it is advanced, so it has a very poor survival rate. It is considered a malignant neoplasm with high mortality.

Liver cancer

Liver cancer is the 6th most common type of cancer, accounting for 5% of the total. First of all, it is necessary to highlight that the liver is a common place for the detection of metastases, that is, other cancers (colorectal, esophageal, gastric and more) have spread to this organ. However, this is not considered liver cancer, as the primary tumor is located elsewhere in the body.

Liver cancer Symptoms:

If the tumor originates in the liver, this is usually preceded by permanent damage to the organ known as liver cirrhosis.

In general, cirrhosis is caused by 3 causal factors: continued alcoholism, chronic hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis C.

The symptoms are very varied and range from pain in the upper abdomen to yellowing of the skin (jaundice), changes in the color of stool, vomiting, nausea and fluid accumulation.

The survival rate, in most cases, is reserved.

Cancer of the cervix (CCU)

This malignant neoplasm, which only affects people with female genitalia, represents 3.3% of total cancers. Although it is not entirely clear what causes this disease, in many cases the human papillomavirus (HPV) and its continued infection over time is the main suspect. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), HPV 16 and 18 cause almost 50% of highly malignant precancerous lesions of the cervix.

Cancer of the cervix (CCU) Symptoms:

One of the main symptoms of this type of cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding outside the menstrual period.

Pain in the pelvic region, discomfort during sexual intercourse, and abnormal vaginal secretions are also common.

Getting vaccinated against high-risk HPV variants is the best way to prevent this type of cancer, in addition to undergoing the relevant cancer prevention tests.

Esophageal cancer

Ranking number 8 among the most common types of cancer is esophageal cancer, with 3.3% of the total. At these points, much lower epidemiological probabilities are already considered, since the risk for men throughout life is 1 in 125, while for women it is as low as 1 in 417. People between 45 and 70 years of age They are much more likely to develop it.

Esophageal cancer Symptoms:

Esophageal cancer in its earliest stages is usually asymptomatic. As it progresses, you may experience dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), unintentional weight loss, burning in the chest, and hoarseness.

The survival rate is quite reserved, since even in its localized stage the probability of living 5 years after diagnosis is less than 50%.

Thyroid cancer

Thyroid cancer represents 3.2% of total cancers. Before presenting more information, it is necessary to highlight that the vast majority of thyroid nodules and lumps are benign in nature, since only 5% of patients with this type of symptom end up receiving a diagnosis of thyroid cancer. The predisposing agents are not completely known, but radiation exposure is one of the most cited.

Thyroid cancer Symptoms:

The most obvious symptom of this cancer is the appearance of a lump or mass in the neck, which can grow rapidly. It can also cause pain in the front of the neck, hoarseness, swallowing problems, and difficulty breathing, among other signs. If detected at its localized stage, this type of cancer has an excellent prognosis, with almost 100% survival.

Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is the last on the list, sharing with thyroid a percentage of 3.2% of the total. This type of cancer is characteristic of advanced age, since around 9 out of 10 people diagnosed are 55 years old or older. We go further, since the average age of diagnosis is 73 years.

Bladder cancer Symptoms:

The most obvious symptoms of this malignancy are the following: appearance of blood clots in the urine, burning/painful sensation when urinating, frequent urination and pain in the lower back region.

Survival rates depend on many factors, but in its combined stages it reports a probability of surviving 77% 5 years after diagnosis.

Conclusion

There are many types of cancer, but these are the most common in the general population. 

Although their epidemiological patterns and survival probabilities are very different, one thing is clear after reading this list: all diseases improve their prognosis if they are detected in time. 

If any abnormal symptoms persist over time, medical attention and early diagnosis are required.

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