BiologyCBSE Biology Articles

Acquired and Inherited Traits

Introduction

Acquired qualities are those that grow in life. These do not pass from one generation to the next. Hereditary traits, on the other hand, are present in a person from birth and are passed down from one generation to the next.

Acquired and Inherited Traits

Acquired Traits

An acquired trait is a trait developed in an individual as a result of environmental influences. These characteristics are not encoded by the organism’s DNA and therefore cannot be passed on to future generations.

Lamarck first hypothesized that acquired characteristics could be passed from parents to their offspring to make an organism better adapted to nature but later Darwin removed that idea from his book – Theory of Evolution, after finding enough evidence to prove that acquired characteristics were not passed on one generation back on the other

For example. The generation of bodybuilders does not require children to have huge muscles. This is because the bodybuilder has gained muscle in his life.

Inherited Traits

These same characteristics are inherited from parents to children. Hair, skin, eye color, body type, height and susceptibility to certain diseases are some examples of genetic characteristics in humans. The genetic characteristics of an individual are determined by his genes.

In the human body, there are between 25,000 and 35,000 genes in a single cell. These genes carry characteristics inherited from an individual’s parents.

Gregor Mendel explained the concept of inherited traits in his experiments on the pea plant. He pointed out that traits that appear in a phenotype are called dominant traits, while those that do not are known as recessive traits.

  • Rule of dominance: When an individual has two alternative character traits, only one trait is expressed in the F1 offspring and is called the dominant trait, while the non-expressive form is called the recessive trait.
  • Law of separation: The law of separation is the second law of inheritance. This rule explains that during meiosis cell division (formation of gametes) pairs of alleles are separated from each other so that only one allele is present in each gamete.
  • Rule of independent assortment: According to the rule of independent mutation, alleles of more than two genes are independent of each other in gametes and an allele found on one gene does not affect an allele found on another gene.

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