General Characteristics of Bryophytes

General characteristics of bryophytes-min
characteristics of bryophytes-min

Bryophytes are defined as multicellular, eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, non-vascular plants having cell walls made of cellulose, and their zygotes develop into an embryo. General characteristics of bryophytes are provided here.

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Main characteristics of bryophytes 


They occur in damp shady places.

Simplest land plants

Bryophytes are the simplest land plants.

Thalloid bodies Bryophytes

They have thalloid bodies that are not differentiated into true root, stem, and leaves.


Instead of roots, they have a unicellular hair-like structure called rhizoids


Some Bryophytes have pseudostem (not the true stem)


Some Bryophytes have pseudo leaves

Vascular bundles

They do not have vascular bundles


They are needing Amphibians water for sexual reproduction because their male gametes are flagellated and motile.


They reproduce sexually as well as asexually.

Alternation of generation (life cycle)

Saprophytes show metamorphic alternation of generation. Its life cycle consists of two types of a generation which alternation with each other.

  • Gametophyte generation
  • Sporophyte generation

Gametophyte generation

The gametophyte generation reproduces sexually by producing male and female gametes, these two fuses to form a zygote, which develops into an embryo. This gives rise to the sporophyte.

Sporophyte generation

Spores are produced in sporophyte after meiosis. Each spore germinates into a gametophyte

Groups of bryophytes

Bryophytes are classified into three groups

Hepatica (liverworts)


Merchant have dichotomously branched dorsoventrally thalloid structure

Music (mosses)

Fun aria having rhizoids pseudostem and leaves.

Anthocerotae (hornworts)


Anthoceros having horn like capsules.

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