Biology

Types and Examples of Coenzymes

Examples of coenzymes
Examples of coenzymes

In this post Best examples of coenzymes are given. This post also includes:

  • Coenzymes Definition
  • Coenzymes Examples
  • Types
  • Functions
  • Lots more

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What are Coenzymes?

The coenzymes or cosubstrates are a small type of organic molecule, non – proteinaceous, whose function in the body is to transport specific chemical groups between various enzymes, without forming part of the structure of them. It is an activation method that consumes coenzymes, which are continuously recycled by metabolism, allowing the perpetuation of the cycle and the exchange of chemical groups with a minimum of chemical and energy investment.

There is a very wide variety of coenzymes, some of which are common to all forms of life. Many of them are vitamins or come from them.

See also: Examples of Enzymes (and their function)

Examples of coenzymes

  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH and NAD +). Participant in redox reactions, this coenzyme is found in all living cells, either as NAD + (created from scratch from tryptophan or aspartic acid), an oxidant and electron receptor; or as NADH (product of the oxidation reaction), reducing agent and an electron donor.
  • Coenzyme A (CoA) . Responsible for transferring acyl groups necessary for various metabolic cycles (such as the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids), it is a free coenzyme derived from vitamin B5. Meat, mushrooms, and egg yolk are foods rich in this vitamin.
  • Tetrahydrofolic acid (Coenzyme F). Known as coenzyme F or FH 4 and derived from folic acid (Vitamin B 9 ), it is particularly important in the cycle of the synthesis of amino acids and especially purine, through the transmission of methyl, formyl, methylene, and forming groups. A deficiency of this coenzyme produces anemia.
  • Vitamin K. Linked to the blood coagulation factor, it acts as an activator of different plasma proteins and osteocalcin. It is achieved in three forms: Vitamin K 1, abundant in any diet and of vegetable origin; Vitamin K 2 of bacterial origin, and Vitamin K 3 of synthetic origin.
  • Cofactor F420. Derived from flavin and participant in electron transport in detox reactions (redox), it is vital for numerous processes of methanogenesis, sulfate reduction, and oxygen detoxification.
  • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP). This molecule is used by all living beings to feed energy to their chemical reactions and used in the synthesis of cellular RNA. It is the main energy transfer molecule from one cell to the other.
  • S-adenosyl methionine (SAM). Involved in the transfer of methyl groups, it was discovered for the first time in 1952. It is composed of ATP and methionine and is used as an adjuvant in the prevention of Alzheimer’s. It is produced and consumed in the body by liver cells.
  • Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Also called sapropterin or BH 4, it is an essential coenzyme for the synthesis of nitric oxide and hydroxylases of aromatic amino acids. Its deficiency is linked to the loss of neurotransmitters such as dopamine or serotonin.
  • Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone). It is also known as ubidecarenone or coenzyme Q, and it is common to almost all existing mitochondrial cells. It is vital for aerobic cellular respiration, generating 95% of the energy in the human body as ATP. It is considered an antioxidant and is recommended as a dietary supplement since in old age this coenzyme can no longer be synthesized.
  • Glutathione (GSH). This tripeptide is an antioxidant and cell protector against free radicals and other toxins. It is essentially synthesized in the liver, but any human cell is capable of making it from other amino acids, such as glycine. It is considered a valuable ally in the fight against diabetes, various carcinogenic processes, and neurological diseases.
  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid). It is a sugar acid that acts as a powerful antioxidant and whose name comes from the disease that causes its deficiency, called scurvy. The synthesis of this coenzyme is expensive and difficult, so its intake is necessary through the diet.
  • Vitamin B 1 (thiamine). A molecule that is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol, necessary in the diet of almost all vertebrates and many microorganisms, for the metabolism of carbohydrates. Its deficiency in the human body leads to beriberi diseases and Korsakoff Syndrome.
  • Biocytin. Indispensable in the transfer of carbon dioxide, it occurs naturally in blood serum and urine. It is used in scientific research as a tincture for nerve cells.
  • Vitamin B 2 (riboflavin). This yellowish pigment is key in the nutrition of animals since it is required by all flavoproteins and energy, lipid, carbohydrate, protein, and amino acid metabolism. It can be obtained naturally from milk, rice, or green vegetables.
  • Vitamin B 6 (pyridoxine). Water-soluble coenzyme eliminated through the urine, so it must be replaced through the diet: wheat germ, cereals, eggs, fish, and legumes, among other foods. It is involved in the metabolism of neurotransmitters and has a prominent role in the energy circuit.
  • Lipoic acid. Derived from octanoic fatty acid, it is involved in the use of glucose and in the activation of many antioxidants. It is of plant origin.
  • Vitamin H (biotin). Also known as Vitamin B 7 or B 8, it is essential for the breakdown of certain fats and amino acids and synthesized by numerous intestinal bacteria.
  • Coenzyme B. It is vital in the redox reactions typical of the generation of methane by microbial life.
  • Cytidine triphosphate. Key in the metabolism of living beings, it is a high-energy molecule, similar to ATP. It is essential for the synthesis of DNA and RNA.
  • Nucleotide sugarsMonosaccharide sugar donors are vital in the constitution of nucleic acids such as DNA or RNA, through esterification processes.

It can help you: Examples of Digestive Enzymes

Suggested Topics:

  • Fats
  • Lipids
  • Essential Nutrients
  • Good Fats and Bad Fats
  • Amino acids
  • Food (and its nutrients)
  • Enzymes
  • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Digestive enzymes

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