Difference Between Active and Passive Immunity

The immune system has physiological mechanisms that allow the body to recognize, eliminate and metabolize foreign substances without causing any damage to its tissues, thus preventing further infection/damage by foreign substances.

Difference Between Active and Passive Immunity

This is known as innate immunity. The second line of defense is through phagocytic cells; This is again done by innate immunity. The third line of defense is through adaptive immunity.

Active and passive immunity are two types of acquired immunity. The main difference between active and passive antibodies is that antibodies are produced by producing antibodies in the human body, while antibodies are produced by exogenous antibodies and then injected into the body In this article we will look at another difference between active and passive immunity.

What is Active Immunity?

The term “active immunity” refers to an individual’s body’s rapid response to infection. When it is acted upon by a foreign antigen, that is, an antigen present in the bacteria, it is also initiated. It also refers to the individual’s adaptive response to repeated exposure to an infection or antigen.

In addition, the immune system does not develop quickly after infection. As a result, it may take days or weeks to appear after initial exposure. However, once his security is developed, it can last a lifetime. Alternatively, it can arise spontaneously or as a result of vaccination.

T cells, B cells and antigen-presenting cells produce functional immunity. It also involves antibody synthesis triggered by infection or immunogenicity. Long-term memory cells are also formed.

In addition, it is stored for a long time. The defensive response takes longer to develop because of the break period. Eventually, reinfection or revaccination can reawaken.

What is Passive Immunity?

Passive immunity is immunity provided to an individual by the transfusion of serum or lymphocytes. They also take it from the most vaccinated. It is also a great way to provide immunity without waiting for an active immune response to occur.

In addition, passive immunity does not require prior infection. It works quickly and instantly. It is also temporary. In other words, it might only take a few months.

Passive immunity involves the production of antigen without the intervention of immune cells. In addition, since it is transmitted directly, the antibody does not develop. In addition, memory antibodies do not develop.

There is no alternative available here either. It must be regularly re-administered for continued safety. In cases of immunodeficiency, immunodeficiency or severe combined immunodeficiencies, then it is useful.

Difference Between Active and Passive Immunity

Active Immunity Passive Immunity
Active immunity is usually long-lasting, sometimes life-long. It is produced by the antibodies of the host in response to direct contact with an antigen Passive immunity lasts only for a few weeks or months. It is produced by the introduction of antibodies from outside into the host
It produces an immunological memory It does not produce immunological memory
When the antigens enter the body, antibodies and other specialised lymphocytes are produced Antibodies are introduced from an external source. For instance, a mother introduces antibodies to a fetus through the placenta and to an infant via mother’s milk.
There are no side-effects It may cause reactions
Immunity does not occur immediately Immunity develops immediately


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