Elastic materials

Elastic materials are known as those endowed with the ability to recover their original dimensions, once a sustained mechanical force ends that forced them to acquire a different shape. Said behavior is governed by Hooke’s Law, which understands the relationship between stress and deformation under an Elasticity Modulus.

Elastic materials can be natural, semi-synthetic or synthetic, depending on their degree of elaboration through human hands.

See also: Examples of Elasticity

Examples of elastic materials

  1. Elastin. A protein from animal connective tissue is known by this name, which, unlike the collagen that gives it density and resistance, gives them a certain coefficient of elasticity, which allows them to expand and regain their shape.
  1. Rubber. A naturally-derived polymer, derived from the sap of certain specific trees, is water repellent and resistant to electricity, yet highly elastic. It is used today for numerous commercial applications, from toys to elastic bands.
  1. Nylon. In this case, we are talking about an artificial polymer, derived from petroleum, belonging to the group of polyamides. Its elasticity is medium, depending on the added during its manufacture.
  1. Lycra. Known as elastane or spandex, it is a synthetic fiber endowed with enormous resistance and elasticity, which makes it ideal for textile and industrial applications.
  1. Latex. Here is the most elastic material known, different in its chemical composition from rubber and other vegetable gums of similar origin. Latex is made up of fats, waxes and gummy resins, extracted and processed from certain angiosperm plants and certain fungi. It is widely used for gloves and condoms.
  1. Rubber. One of the best known electrical insulators, rubber is a very high molecular weight, resinous substance, the acidic, and solid character of which does not prevent it from being highly elastic.
  1. Chewing gum. Another polymer of natural origin, the chewing gum manufacturing material is the sap of the Manilkara zapota tree (sapota or zapotilla), native to the American continent. This resin is used not only in chewing gum, but in varnishes, plastics, and adhesives, and together with rubber, as an industrial insulator.
  1. Elastic band. Known as a rubber band, it is a rubber and rubber band, manufactured in a circular band and provided with hydrocarbons that reduce its elasticity in exchange for hardness and adherence. It is a good insulator, but very little resistant to heat.
  1. Lana. A natural fiber obtained from mammals of the goat family, such as goats, sheep and camelids (alpacas, llamas, vicuñas) and even rabbits, through the shearing of the animal. With it, an elastic and fire-retardant fabric is made, useful for clothing that protects you from the cold.
  1. Cartilage. Present in the human body and in other vertebrates, cartilage occupies the space between the bones and forms the ear and nose pavilions. In some species, it constitutes its complete or almost complete skeleton. It is elastic and devoid of blood vessels, hence it can fulfill its role of reducing bone impact and preventing wear by friction.
  1. Graphene. It is a natural elastic, composed of a single layer of graphite, with high conductivity and a very small thickness of just one atom. It is greatly exploited in electronics and nanotechnology as it is a great driver.
  1. Silicone. This inorganic polymer is obtained through polysiloxane, a liquid resin, and is made up of silicon and oxygen atoms in an alternate series. It is odorless, colorless, and inert even at high temperatures. Its industrial applications are very varied, including in the medical and surgical industry, or in the culinary industry.
  1. Foam rubber. Polyurethane foam (PU foam), a form of porous plastic that does not exist in nature, but has enormous industrial and commercial applications for man. It contains carcinogenic substances of very low intensity, it has an origin similar to that of polyester.
  1. Polyester. This is the name given to an entire category of elastic substances discovered in nature since 1830 but artificially grown from petroleum. It is widely used in various industries due to its high resistance to humidity, chemical agents, and mechanical forces.
  1. Neuromuscular bandage. Known as kinesiotaping , it is a material consisting of various cotton tapes equipped with an acrylic adhesive, capable of stretching more than 100% of its original size, and used in dressing wounds and injuries.
  1. Balloons . Made of flexible material based on rubber or aluminized plastic, they are flexible containers that are usually filled with air, helium or water and are intended for recreational purposes. There is also a variety for medical and laboratory uses.
  1. Ropes. Made of flexible material arranged in a homogeneous strip, the tensioned cords can vibrate freely and reproduce acoustic waves. Hence, they are used in musical instruments such as the guitar or the violin.
  1. Fiberglass. Obtained by stretching molten glass, it is a material made up of various silicon-based polymers, which give it flexibility. It is widely used as an insulator and conductor, especially in the telecommunications industry.
  1. Plastic. Under this general name, a huge set of synthetic materials obtained by polymerizing carbon derived from different hydrocarbons, such as petroleum, is considered. It is endowed with a certain elasticity and flexibility in the face of heat, making it possible to mold it into various shapes. Once cold, the elasticity margin decreases.
  1. Jelly. We call this a semi-solid mixture (at least at room temperature) that is known as colloid gel and is produced from the boil of different animal collagens, such as cartilage. They are elastic and reactive to heat: they are diluted in hot water and solidify in cold water.

It can serve you: Examples of Natural and Artificial Materials


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