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Flight Adaptations

Over the years, birds have acquired not only wings, but many other features that help them fly. Bird bones have a strong appearance, but are not heavy.

Flight Adaptations

This is accomplished by drilling the remaining hole and connecting and removing some of the bones. Some bones of the pelvic girdle and spine overlap.

 there are two types of flight adaptations

  1. Morphological Adaptations
  2. Anatomical Adaptations

Morphological Adaptations

  • Birds have spindle-shaped bodies to withstand low winds during flight. This allows the birds to conserve energy and become more efficient in flying.
  • To maintain balance in the wind, the bird has a strong body, a strong back and a heavy abdomen. Their wings are attached to the thorax, the lungs, folds and other smaller organs are located higher, the heavy central muscles are other aids for flight.
  • The wings are smooth, pointed backwards, and fit perfectly to optimize the body and reduce friction in flight. It reduces body weight and protects it from environmental heat. They also have a wide rear airbag.
  • Feathers add body buoyancy. It prevents the body from losing heat. This helps the birds tolerate lower altitude temperatures.
  • The front legs are converted into wings, which are the only part of flight. These include the structure of bones, muscles, nerves, birds and blood vessels.
  • The wings have large ribs. They also support the bird in the air. The wings have thick, strong tips, concave at the base and convex at the top.
  • This helps increase atmospheric pressure at the bottom and decrease atmospheric pressure at the top. Thus, the bird can soar up and forward in flight.

Anatomical Adaptations

  • Well developed muscles control the action of the flight muscles. It weighs about 1/6 of the whole bird. Plain muscles are lined. The muscles on the wings are larger. Other muscles help the upper muscles work.
  • Bird bones are very large and transparent. The bones are hollow and filled with air sacs. Secondary plastering is provided to increase their durability. The bones are attached and bone marrow is missing.
  • Birds don’t have teeth. The thoracic spine is fused except for the last one. This makes the air strikes play an important role in the action of the wing.
  • Birds have a very high metabolic rate. So the food cooks faster. The length of the cervix decreases due to small amounts of indigestible waste. They do not have a nose, which reduces the weight of the bird.
  • The respiratory system of birds is designed in such a way that food oxidizes faster, more energy is released and the body needs more oxygen molecules due to the higher metabolic rate. The lungs are provided for this purpose occupying any space between the internal organs.

Circulatory System

Rapid food metabolism in birds requires a rapid supply of oxygen from the blood. That is why birds need an effective communication system. Birds have a four-chambered double heart.

This prevents the mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. Also, bird red blood cells contain a high concentration of hemoglobin, which helps in rapid tissue aeration.

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