13 Parts of Plant cell and their Functions

Parts of the Plant cell are provided here. Parts of plant cell

Cell Wall

(i) The outermost boundary of a plant cell is called a cell wall. in addition to plants, bacteria and fungi also have cell walls. (ii) Most plants have cell walls of cellulose. (iii) the bacterial cell wall is made of proteins and carbohydrates while fungi have cell walls of chitin and fungal cellulose.

Functions of cell wall

  1. a cell wall gives protection and support to the plant cell.
  2. it gives strength.
  3. it gives a definite shape to the plant cell.
  4. it transports materials ( water and solutes ) in and out of the cell of plants.


They are membrane-bound pigment-containing organelles found only in plants. they are three types of plastids. Chloroplasts: (Gr: chloro = green, plast living). 

  • chloroplasts contain green pigments called chlorophyll.
  • they give plants their green colour.
  • they are double-membrane structures and are commonly oval disc-shaped.
  • mostly leaves and green stems contain chloroplasts.

Functions of chloroplasts

  • They help in the process of photosynthesis in which plants make their food ( carbohydrates ).
  • they give green colour to plants.

CHROMOPLASTS : (Gr: chromo = red)

  • The plastids containing pigments other than the green ones are called chromoplasts T
  • they contain the pigments like carotene and xanthophyll.
  • chromoplasts are usually found in flowers and fruits.

The functions of chromoplasts

  • They help in the pollination of plants.
  • they cause insects to attract to plants by colour flowers and fruits.

Also Read: Animal cell LEUCOPLASTS: (Greek leuco = white).

  • they are colourless. they are triangular, tubular or of some other shape.
  • they develop in the absence of sunlight.
  • therefore, they are commonly found in all underground parts of plants.

FunctionS OF Leucoplasts

  1. They store food in the form of starch.
  2. they also store food materials. as carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.


  1. They are fluid ( other than cytoplasm ) filled sacs surrounded by a membrane tonoplast. in animal cells, they are numerous, small but temporary structures.
  2. in plant cells, they are permanent and very large in size, one or a few in number.

Functions of Vacuole They are concerned with the storage of cell sap.

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