Biology

Difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis

Difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis
Difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis

Spermatogenesis is a process that takes place in the testicles and is intended to produce sperm. Oogenesis is the development and differentiation of the oocyte or ovum in the female sexual organs.

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What is Spermatogenesis?

It is a process that takes place in the testes or gonads of males of a species where sperm or male sex cells are produced. This process is activated by the GnRH hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus, and the final maturation of sperm occurs in the epididymis. It lasts between 62 and 75 days in the human species.

This process consists of two stages, meiosis or spermatocytogenesis and spermiogenesis, which is the structural formation of sperm.

During the first phase, haploid cells are formed, that is, with half of the individual’s genetic load. These cells become known as spermatids.

Spermatids go through a differentiation process in which the nucleus moves towards one of the cell’s poles and the centrosome gives rise to two centrioles. One of the centrioles is located near the nucleus forming a plate while the other gives rise to an axial filament or tail.

What is an Oogenesis?

Oogenesis is female gametogenesis, it is the development and differentiation of the oocyte in animals through a meiotic division. Oogenesis begins in the prenatal stage and continues with the sexual maturation of the woman.

Diploid germ cells generated by mitosis are known as oogonia and are found in the follicles of the ovary. These grow and undergo modifications until they become primary oocytes; These go through a meiotic division and give rise to a secondary oocyte and a first polar body, then another meiotic division occurs and the secondary oocyte forms two cells, a larger one, and a second polar body.

The polar bodies disintegrate while the larger cell develops into a mature haploid ovum.

The ovules are found as part of the ovarian follicles. Its production is regulated by the hormones of the pituitary: follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.

In the female fetus, oogonia are formed and the meiosis process stops at the secondary oocyte stage until at puberty an oocyte is shed in each menstrual cycle. The second meiotic division will occur after the penetration of the sperm.

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Difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis

  • During oogenesis, a greater amount of nutritive material accumulates.
  • The cells resulting in oogenesis are of different sizes because the nutritive material is not distributed equally.
  • The cells that result from spermatogenesis are of equal size.
  • Oogenesis produces only one functional gamete.
  • Spermatogenesis produces four functional gametes.
  • Oogenesis begins in women in the third month of intrauterine development.
  • Spermatogenesis begins in men when they reach puberty.
  • Primary oocytes are retained in premeiotic until ovulation.
  • Primary spermatozoa continue their meiotic reproduction process.

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