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Spinal Cord

The spinal cord is part of the central nervous system. Running down the vertebral column of the spine is a long tube-like structure arising from the medulla oblongata formed by a collection of brainstem nerves that cross each other and two dorsal and ventral roots that contain nerves fused to form the spinal cord.

spinal cord cross section

Spinal Cord Anatomy

In adults, the spine is approximately 40 cm long and two cm wide. It forms a vital link between the brain and the body.

Several spinal nerves arise from each spinal segment. There are 8 pairs of cervical, 5 lumbar, 12 lumbar, 5 trans, 1 lumbar spinal nerves.

It performs basic information processing because it transmits sensory signals from all parts of the body to the central nervous system via excitatory fibers. The nerve tissue is spread uniformly as a gray white mass.

The smooth muscle fibers that carry nerve fibers and the skeletal system interact with various fibers while the ventral horn gives off axons that carry motor neurons.

It also helps mediate autonomic control of internal functions that have descending axis neurons. This is a sensitive area that is severely affected in the event of a serious injury.

Understanding the physiology of the spine helps to investigate and identify various preventive mechanisms for diseases and injuries associated with the spine.

Structure Of Spinal Cord

The vertebrae pass through a groove of the skull resting within the vertebral column. The spinal nerves originate in different parts of the spine and are named accordingly, these parts are – neck, chest, pelvis and abdomen.

The dorsal section shows a gray cylindrical mass surrounded by a white crust.

The gray matter is the central channel in the center and is filled with CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid). It has horns (four protrusions) and forms a core composed mostly of neurons and CNS cells. two dorsal and two ventral horns.

The white substance contains collections of axons that allow communication between different layers of the CNS. This pathway is a collection of axons and carries various information. Ascending and descending pathways send and transmit signals from the brain to different nerve cells in the body, respectively.

The spinal nerves act as messengers, sending information to and from the rest of the body and spinal cord. We have 31 spinal nerves.

Spinal Cord Injuries

Damage to any part of the spinal cord or spinal nerves can cause permanent and lifelong damage to the spine that affects the normal function of the spine without any replacement.

It often causes long-term changes in body strength, body posture and characteristics. Voluntary limb control after trauma depends on the severity and location of the injury.

Loss of motion or nerve under injury results in any injury. An incomplete injury may enable the victim to perform some sensory and motor functions.

Spinal cord injuries not only affect the nerves and spinal cord, but also other muscles and vital organs.

Function Of Spinal Cord

  • forms a connecting link between the brain and the PNS
  • Provides structural support and creates body posture
  • Facilitate dynamic movements
  • Myelin in the white matter acts as an electrical barrier
  • carries messages from the brain to different parts of the body
  • He coordinates the photos
  • It receives sensory information from the receptors and brings it closer to the brain for processing.


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