The covalent bond is a type of Chemical bond that is formed Due to the sharing of the pairing of electrons by atoms. Basically there are three types of Covalent bond, Single covalent bond, Double covalent bond, and Tripple covalent bond. Common examples of covalent bonds or covalent compounds are Methane, Bromine, Iodine, Carbon monoxide, water, and chlorine, etc.
This Post includes:
- Covalent bond Definition
- Much more
Both chemical compounds and chemical elements are made up of molecules, and these in turn are made up of atoms. The atoms remain united thanks to the formation of the so-called chemical bonds.
The chemical bonds are not all the same: basically dependent on the electronic properties of the atoms involved. There are two most common types of bonds: ionic bonds and covalent bonds.
Typically, covalent bonds are what hold non-metallic atoms together. It happens that the atoms of these elements have many electrons in their outermost shell and have a tendency to retain or gain electrons, instead of giving them up.
That is why the way in which these substances or chemical compounds achieve stability is by sharing a pair of electrons, or not from each atom. In this way, the shared pair of electrons is common to the two atoms and at the same time holds them together. In noble gases, for example, this happens. Also in halogen elements.
When the covalent bond occurs between elements of similar electronegativities, such as between hydrogen and carbon, an apolar covalent bond is generated. This happens, for example, in hydrocarbons.
Types of Covalent bond
Also, homonuclear molecules (made up of the same atom) always form apolar bonds. But if the bond occurs between elements of different electronegativity, a higher electron density is produced in one atom than in another, as a result of this, a pole is formed.
A third possibility is that two atoms share a pair of electrons, but that these shared electrons are contributed by only one atom of them. In that case, we speak of a dative or coordinate covalent bond.
For a dative bond to occur, an element with a free electron pair (such as nitrogen) and an element that is deficient in electrons (such as hydrogen) is necessary. It is also necessary that the one with the electronic pair is electronegative enough not to lose the electrons to share. This situation occurs, for example, in ammonia (NH4 + ).
Substances with covalent compounds
The substances containing covalent compounds may occur in any state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas), and generally are poor conductors of heat and electricity.
They often show relatively low melting and boiling points and are usually soluble in polar solvents, such as benzene or carbon tetrachloride, but have poor solubility in water. They are extremely stable.
Examples of covalent bonds
Numerous examples of compounds or substances containing covalent bonds can be given:
- Carbon dioxide