Enzymes: Types, Examples, Structure and Functions
The enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts, ie accelerate chemical reactions without being consumed or become part of the products of that reaction. All the reactions that occur in the body have been mediated by enzymes, so it is clear that enzymes have a wide variety of functions in living organisms. According to IUB, there are 6 types of enzymes. Common examples of enzymes are oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, lyases, isomerases, ligases.
Among the functions of enzymes is to promote the digestion and absorption of nutrients, from the food eaten: digestive enzymes break down proteins, carbohydrates, and fats into assimilable substances.
In this sense, it is said that enzymes are very useful in cases of abdominal bloating, gas, and generally very heavy digestions. They also produce the inhibition of inflammatory processes and favor the recovery of blows, as well as help to eliminate toxins and harmonize the immune system.
Conditions for enzyme activity
Enzyme activity, however, is performed with different efficacy depending on certain conditions that may exist in the body. For example, a higher concentration of the substrate or a higher concentration of the enzyme increases the speed with which the enzymatic reaction occurs, although up to a certain limit.
On the other hand, an increase of 10 ° C doubles the speed of the reaction, but at a certain limit, the heat becomes counterproductive with the enzymatic activity. Furthermore, the optimum pH for enzyme activity is 7 (except for digestive enzymes, situated in the acidic context of the stomach).
How many Types of Enzymes are there?
The classifications that are made of enzymes vary between those that check their complexity, those that analyze their cofactors or those that are involved in the enzymatic activity:
The hydrolases are those that catalyze hydrolysis reactions, at the time the isomerases are those that catalyze reactions in which an isomer is transformed into another. The ligases catalyze the joining of molecules, while lyases acting reactions adding or removing links. The oxidoreductases catalyzing redox reactions (electron transfer facilitating) and transferase catalyze the transfer of a group of one substance to another.
Read Also: Examples of Digestive Enzymes
Enzymes in industrial processes
There are many industrial processes that are tied to the normal functioning of enzymes. The alcoholic fermentation and other products to the consumer at the time that many reactions involved in worlds like construction depend on them.
Enzymes are sometimes used for medical purposes, intended to treat areas of local inflammation.
Enzymes and Their Functions (video)
Here are some examples of types of enzymes with some of their functions, biological or industrial.
Examples of enzymes and their functions
- Trypsin: It breaks the peptide bonds adjacent to arginine or lysine.
- Lactase: Used in the dairy industry, it prevents the crystallization of concentrated milk.
- Gastrin: Produces and secretes hydrochloric acid, while stimulating gastric mobility.
- Dipeptidase: Producer of two amino acids.
- Chymosin: Coagulates milk proteins, in the cheese industry.
- Lipase: Provides fatty acids, provided that it acts in an alkaline environment, with the previous action of bile salts.
- Secretin: Segregates water and sodium bicarbonate, in addition to inhibiting gastric motility.
- Glucose-isomerases: Allows the use of high fructose syrups in the production of sweet foods.
- Papain: In the brewery, it is used to liquefy malt paste.
- Intestinal vasoactive peptide: Increases blood flow and secretes aqueous pancreatic fluid.
- Sucrase: Produces fructose and glucose.
- Fiscina: Important in tenderizing meats.
- Carboxypeptidase: Separates terminal carboxyamino acids.
- Bromelain: It is involved in the production of hydrolysates.
- Deoxyribonuclease: Produces nucleotides, with the DNA substrate.
- Encephalin: Inhibits the secretion of pancreatic enzymes and intestinal motility.
- Somatostatin: Inhibits the secretion of hydrochloric acid.
- Amylase: Provides glucose in the stomach and pancreas, if it acts in an acidic environment.
- Lipoxidase: In the bread industry, it improves its quality and produces a very white crumb.
- Pepsin: Produces peptides and amino acids in the stomach, a very acidic medium.
- Ribonuclease: Produces nucleotides, with the RNA substrate.
- Whole glucagon: Inhibits motility and secretion.
- Pectinases: In the beverage industry, it improves the clarification and extraction of juices.
- Tannase: Converts glucose into fructose, in addition to preventing browning and off-flavors in some beverages.
- Ptialina: Provides monosaccharides and disaccharides, if it acts in a moderately alkaline environment.
We recommend you:
- Digestive Enzymes
- Examples of Proteins
- Fatty Acids