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Vector Borne Diseases

What is a Vector-Borne Disease?

Infectious diseases transmitted by pathogens. Vectors are insects that carry various disease-causing microorganisms such as mosquitoes, ticks and flies. Reproductive rates of resistant insects are affected by climate and weather. Such diseases are widespread and found throughout the world.

Vector Borne Diseases

More than 700,000 patients die from infectious diseases. Major infectious diseases account for approximately 17% of infectious diseases worldwide.

The poorest tribes in tropical and subtropical regions are most susceptible to such diseases. Malaria is probably one of the most common infectious diseases in the world. Let’s look at the different vectors and the diseases they spread.

Types of Disease Vectors

Vectors Diseases Causative organisms
Chikungunya Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)
Dengue Dengue virus (DENV)
Zika fever Zika virus
Yellow fever Yellow fever virus
Filariasis Filarioidea
Rift Valley fever Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV)
Malaria Plasmodium
West Nile fever West Nile Virus
Tse-tse Flies African trypanosomiasis Trypanosoma brucei
Typhus Rickettsia prowazekii
Louse-borne relapsing fever Borrelia recurrentis
Leishmaniasis Leishmania
Phlebotomus fever Phlebovirus
Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi
Tick-borne encephalitis
Tick-borne encephalitis virus
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever Nairovirus
Relapsing fever Borrelia
Rickettsial disease Rickettsia

Prevention of Vector-borne Diseases

  • Vaccines must be designed to protect against the viruses that cause disease.
  • Insect repellents such as DEET or Permethrin can be applied to skin and clothing.
  • Contact with dogs, cats, cattle and mice should be checked for ticks.
  • Use a net while sleeping to protect yourself from mosquitoes.
  • Wash and dry your clothes after a long walk outside.
  • Remove leaf litter and wood piles from the room.
  • Do not store standing water around.
  • Use antibiotics to fight insect-borne infections.

National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme

The National Vector Borne Disease Control Program (NVBDCP) is the largest organization for the prevention and control of these six infectious diseases – malaria, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, kala-azar and lymphatic filariasis.

The organization has its headquarters in New- Delhi, India. The NVBDCP Board provides cash and goods to the states to implement policies to control these diseases.

The department is a unit under the Directorate General of Health Services, Government of India. It has technical advisers and specialists in bacteriology, entomology and public health.

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