Healthy Foods and Vitamins

Vitamins and Mineral Salts


  • Vitamins are considered organic compounds because they contain a carbon atom.
  • The body cannot produce them and obtains them from the diet.
  • Thirteen types of vitamins have been discovered, which are divided into two groups: fat-soluble vitamins. Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamins and mineral salts

Fat-soluble Vitamins

Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in adipose tissue in the body and liver, [1] and among the fat-soluble vitamins we mention the following:

Vitamin A: Vitamin A plays an important role in maintaining healthy vision and strengthening the immune system. It can be obtained from food sources such as fish liver oil, butter, cabbage, carrots, and spinach. Vitamin A deficiency causes blindness and hair loss, and an overdose of it can also cause It causes headaches and fatigue in severe cases, and in pregnant women, it causes birth defects in the fetus.

Vitamin D: Vitamin D is produced naturally in the human body when the skin is exposed to sunlight. Vitamin D helps maintain bone health and strengthen the immune system. There are two types:

Vitamin D3, which is found in animal fats, and Vitamin D2, which is found in plants such as mushrooms. It can be obtained from food sources such as fish oil and fortified dairy products.

The people most vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency are those who suffer from obesity, the elderly, and those who are not exposed to sufficient sunlight.

Its deficiency also leads to an increase in bone fractures, a weak immune system, and hair loss. In addition, an excessive dose of vitamin D in the body is called hypercalcemia, which leads to nausea, headache, weight loss, and high blood pressure.

Vitamin E: Vitamin E is considered an antioxidant that helps the body inhibit the action of free radicals that cause the formation of cancer cells.

It can be obtained from food sources such as wheat seed oil, sunflower seeds, hazelnuts, and almonds, as its deficiency leads to muscle weakness and numbness. And problems with walking, in addition to the fact that high doses due to taking vitamin E supplements may cause an increased risk of cancer .

Vitamin K: Vitamin K helps with blood clotting, which reduces the risk of heart disease. There are also types of vitamin K, including vitamin K1 found in plant sources, vitamin K2 found in animal sources, and vitamin K which is manufactured in the human intestine naturally, and can be obtained It includes food sources such as cabbage, spinach, parsley, kale, liver, butter, and egg yolks.

Water-Soluble Vitamins

Water-soluble vitamins do not remain in the body for a long time, and the body cannot store them. Among the water-soluble vitamins, we mention the following:

Vitamin B1: Vitamin B1 is also called thiamine, as its deficiency causes beriberi disease . It can be obtained from food sources such as whole grains, kale, cauliflower, potatoes, oranges, liver, and eggs.

Vitamin B2: Vitamin B2, or riboflavin, like other B vitamins, is a water-soluble vitamin. Its sources include bananas, milk, yogurt, okra, meat, eggs, fish, and green beans.

Vitamin B3: Vitamin B3 is called niacin, as its deficiency causes pellagra with symptoms such as diarrhea, dermatitis, and mental disorders.

This vitamin is found in some food sources; Such as liver, chicken, avocado, fish, milk, eggs, tomatoes, dates, leafy vegetables, broccoli, carrots, nuts, whole grains, legumes, sweet potatoes, and mushrooms.

Vitamin B5: It has many sources, such as meat, whole grains, broccoli, avocado, and fish.

Vitamin B6: Vitamin B6, or also called pyridoxine, as its deficiency causes anemia , neuropathy, and damage to parts of the nervous system. This vitamin is found in some food sources; Such as meat, bananas, whole grains, vegetables, and nuts.

Vitamin B7: Vitamin B7 is called biotin, as its deficiency leads to skin inflammation, or inflammation and irritation of the intestines. Its sources include egg yolks, liver, and some vegetables.

Vitamin B9: which is called folic acid, as its deficiency during pregnancy has been linked to birth defects in the fetus. Sources that contain folic acid include leafy vegetables, legumes, liver, and sunflower seeds.

Vitamin B12: A deficiency of this vitamin causes anemia. Sources containing vitamin B12 include fish, meat, shellfish, poultry, eggs, milk, and dairy products.

Vitamin C: Vitamin C deficiency causes anemia, and sources that contain this vitamin include vegetables and fruits such as plums.

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Zaheer Ahmad

I am Zaheer Ahmad. Currently I am doing P.hd on Human Nutrition and Dietetics from Sorbonne University. Previously, I have also done masters in Molecular Nutrition and Food Technology.

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