Difference Between Sperm and Ovum

The sperm and eggs of gametes produced by vertebrates. Specifically, the sperm zygote is male, and the oocyte zygote is female. These two cells also have different dimensions – for example sperm is the smallest cell in the human body, while an egg is the largest. Read on for more differences between the two.

Difference Between Sperm and Ovum

What is Sperm?

In humans and other animals, sperm or reproductive cells play an important role in the reproductive process. Motile sperm with a tail also called a flagellum is produced by animals and known as sperm while algae and fungi can produce motile sperm cells Talking about plants, inflorescence has motile sperm inside pollen and some plants like ferns and gymnosperms have motile sperm.

The human sperm cell is haploid and has 23 chromosomes, which combine with the 23 cells of a female egg or ovary to form a diploid cell Sperm is stored in the epithelium and released from the penis with a fluid called semen during ejaculation.

What is Ovum?

Also called an oocyte or plural oocyte, it is a female gamete or reproductive cell in humans and most animals. Oocytes do not move and when an egg or sperm unites with sperm during fertilization, a zygote or diploid cell is formed which can further develop into a new organism Sometimes, a young animal oocyte is called an oocyte.

Mammals have many eggs at birth, and these develop through oogenesis. In all mammals, including humans, the egg is retrieved from within the female body.

It is one of the largest cells in the human body and can be seen with the naked eye without the aid of a microscope. In humans, it is approximately 0.1 mm in diameter. In algae, an ovule is called an ovule.

Difference Between Sperm and Ovum




Sperm is the male gamete Ovum is the female gamete


Motile (flagella) Non-motile


The smallest cell in the human body The largest cell in the human body


Centrally located Scattered in the cytoplasm


Present in very small amounts Present in large amounts


Absent Present (called germinal vesicle)


Contains X or Y chromosomes Contains only X chromosomes


Present Absent


Produces in the testes Produced in the ovary


Segmented into head, neck, middle and tail No such external segmentation


One spermatogonium produces four sperms One oogonium produces only one ovum

Surrounded by

Plasma membrane Egg envelopes


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