Carbohydrates, along with fats and proteins are the main suppliers of energy for your body. Especially it is the brain, which meets its energy needs mainly with carbohydrates; therefore, at least half of your daily caloric need should come from carbohydrates. These are found mostly in plant foods, such as pasta, potatoes, fruit, and vegetables, but also in some animal sources, such as milk.
What are the 3 types of Carbohydrates?
There are three types of Carbohydrates that are:
1: MONOSACCHARIDES ( Simple Sugars )
Monosaccharides are carbohydrates that are made up of a single sugar molecule, for example, dextrose and fructose, also known as glucose and fruit sugar. Glucose causes a rapid rise in blood sugar levels and thereby generates new energy quickly. It is found, for example, in fruit, honey, and sweets.
Properties of Monosaccharides
- They are simple sugars
- Very sweet in taste.
- Easily soluble in water.
- Cannot be further hydrolyzed into simple sugars.
- Chemically they are either polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones.
- All carbon atoms in monosaccharides except one have a hydroxyl (OH) group.
- They form a ring structure when in solution.
2: DISACCHARIDES ( Complex sugars)
Disaccharides are made up of two sugar molecules, for example, milk sugar (lactose), cane sugar, beet sugar, and table sugar. Dairy products, but also sweet foods like chocolate, jam, and cookies, contain many monosaccharides and disaccharides.
3: POLYSACCHARIDES (Complex carbohydrates)
Polysaccharides are also called complex carbohydrates because they are made up of 10 or more molecules. Since the body assimilates them more slowly, the level of sugar in the blood also increases slowly and they fill you for longer. For this reason, polysaccharides should represent the majority of carbohydrates ingested in the diet. They are found, for example, in rolled oats, rice, and potatoes. Polysaccharides also give you important vitamins and minerals. A special form is vegetable fibers, which we find especially in whole grain products. The fiber keeps your stomach and your intestines healthy and facilitates good digestion and regulation.
Sources of Carbohydrates
Here’s the list of Carbohydrates sources:
- Green plants are the sources of carbohydrates.
- These are the primary products of photosynthesis.
- Other compounds of plants are produced from carbohydrates by various chemical changes.
Also read: Carbohydrates Vs Fats
|FOODS||Carbohydrates per 100 g|
|Basmati rice||78.0 g|
|Pasta (durum wheat)||73.0 g|
|Red lentils||50.0 g|
|Hokkaido pumpkin||12.6 g|